Being observant towards your surrounding community where contracts are awarded is very important. Penny Farthing had such an area of concern at Van Stadens Bridge, where 88 people to date has jumped from the bridge. The matter was brought to SANRAL’s attention, whereby SANRAL contracted barrier cages to be erected in 2013. Since the precaution has been made only one individual has managed to jump from the bridge.
Working in challenging circumstances is what Penny Farthing employees has been developed for. There are no weather, cultural differences, political differences or any other events that by obstruct work that Penny Farthing management will not be able to handle. The neutral approach of Penny Farthing management ensures all parties are satisfied with an agreed upon outcome, product and/or service.
Penny Farthing is responsible for the compliance of statutory controls, but not the enforcement thereof. All queries or instances related to statutory controls should be noted, monitored and handed over to the applicable institution for review. Areas of statutory control are accesses, buildings with building restriction areas, services of properties that crosses road reserves, sub-division roads and any changes thereof to national roads. The statutory controls include illegal outdoor advertising, illegal trading and tourism signs.
The route patrol team ensures daily road safety with inspection of the entire route as stipulated in each contract. Penny Farthing Engineering is the leading Routine Road Maintenance company in south Africa and adheres to the COLTO- and FIDIC- specifications and regulations.
The management of a road network entails the monitoring of the performance of roads responsible for. Planned inspection frequencies will determine a summary of areas that requires attention. Prioritizing various identified problems that requires attention with the appropriate skilled, and experienced management team is crucial. In accordance to contract specifications, problems are identified, analysis of the primary cause of the problems are determined and attended to in accordance to regular prioritized and suitable actions or repair methods. Optimal use of materials and equipment, safety and environmental issues are considered to complete maintenance actions on a satisfactory degree.
Routine road maintenance measures are primarily based on the expenditure control and cost implications regarding longevity of the outcome/product. The Penny Farthing management team has a set sustainability-orientated approach to all identified problems, with optimized solutions attained over a time of experience. The circumstances of each contract differ, therefor it is important to choose a company like Penny Farthing with a reliable record of judgement. Considering and addressing all variables with the necessary skills, knowledge and experience enhances Penny Farthing’s capability to determine the impact of differentiating variables such as quality controls, availability of materials, technical limitations, traffic weather or other unforeseen external- and internal elements.
SANRAL states the three major objectives of routine road maintenance in Chapter 3 of the Road Reserve Management manual, Point 3.1:
“…provide a safe and acceptable level of service for the travelling public.”
“…maintain the condition of the road such that maximum life is obtained from the road (asset preservation).”
“…ensure that the road environment is attractive (aesthetically pleasing).”
The safety of Penny Farthing employees and the travelling public is of the utmost importance. Each contract is different and should be assessed individually to ensure the safety of all involved parties. Management of the traffic should consider the location and surrounding area, the condition of the road, the weather and current signage.
The different sections within Traffic accommodation is as follow: Traffic accommodation
The Penny Farthing Traffic Safety Officer (TSO) sets out the signage to accommodate traffic and ensures signs are set out according to contract specifications. When attending to road repairs the travelling public should be notified of roadworks through cautionary signage. The travelling public should be aware of roadworks for decreased speed when passing or be aware of workers attending to repairs or maintenance.
Traffic accommodation could entail the need for making the travelling public aware of possible dangers in the surrounding area, for instance cattle that constantly cross the road due to lack of fencing.
Penny Farthing investigates areas that proves to cause potential danger, and with the appropriate approvals act to enhance the safety of road users. In some areas illegal stopping might cause severe accidents and should be addressed by erecting chevron posts or other prevention mediums.
Road Traffic Signs:
Manufacturing, supply and installation of road traffic sign accommodation including SANRAL approved road studs is part of the full package Penny Farthing has to offer. All road traffic signage is erected, cleaned for increased visibility and assured that the signage is not faded or damaged. In the event of a damaged road sign, Penn Farthing will remove the sign, repair or replace the signage and re-erect the needed traffic accommodation.
Penny Farthing specializes in the upkeep and supply of traffic signs and considers the longevity of the signs and necessary areas where traffic signs should be erected.
Road Markings & Road Studs:
The same applies for road studs and road marking to accommodate traffic, whilst ensuring the safety of road users. Both road markings and road signs should be investigated frequently for any obstructions.
Permanent markings or maintenance of markings and painted lines and symbols on the road surface should be monitored regularly to ensure the travelling public is aware of the traffic accommodation applicable.
Invasive weed management is the removal of undesirable vegetation, weeds, and invader plants. There are numerous ways of eradication, maintenance or disposal of such elements. Penny Farthing therefore adheres to the most practical guidelines of the Environmental Regulations Act, regarding road reserve management. The company thrives to stay up to date with all legislation of protected plants.
Pruning of trees and shrubs also falls within the category of tree felling. Trees or shrubs that obstructs the visibility of a road, road signs, road marking, the lines-of-sight for intersections or curves can be cut off or pruned with the acquired approval. Trees that has dead branches or died entirely should also be cut down. For the safety of road users Penny Farthing determines what is required according to the environmental regulations and acts accordingly.
Grass cutting is for improved visibility, drainage management, invader plant control, security and safety of the travelling public and decrease of fire hazards. The frequency of grass cutting depends on the environment of each contract. Penny farthing offers high-quality services with pro-active environmental awareness of South African fauna and flora. The cutting of grass is done mostly by brush cutters where accessibility is restricted. The grass needs to be cut between 50mm to 150mm.
Clearing & Grubbing
Penny Farthing makes use of a ‘grader’ to clear all vegetation from the side of the road to achieve the correct road width as prescribed in each contract.
Litter- and Debris Removal and collection:
Penny Farthing removes and collect all litter and debris from the road and surrounding environment, emptying of rubbish bins and cleaning intersections contracted to SMME’s. The frequency of thorough clean-ups differs from contract locations.
The purpose of rest areas is primarily to encourage the travelling public to take breaks from driving. Due to fatigue and long stretches of road between towns accidents significantly increase. A rest area should be inviting for road users. There should be trees for shade, vegetation should be trimmed and neaten.
Arrestor beds either consist of crushed stone or gravel that must meet the grading requirements of the awarded contract. Trucks are the main users of arrestor beds in emergency circumstances. If a truck needs to come to a full stop, they drive into an arrestor bed. This is normally due to the truck that might lose control, the brakes of the truck have failed, or unforeseen circumstances heeds an emergency halt. The friction on impact causes the truck to come to a full stop, preventing a more extreme accident which places other road users in harm’s way.
Arrestor beds are maintained and fluffed every month – or when used- to keep the gravel from compacting. The arrestor beds are regraveled with new material if stipulated in the given contract.
Emergency Stand-by Teams:
Penny Farthing is specializing in the assistance and normalization of emergency events/occurrences. The emergency stand-by teams are on call 24/7. It is the team’s responsibility to clean up all accident site and/or spillage of dangerous materials, including the loss of a truck’s load. The requirements and management of any incident adheres to strict guidelines to be followed by the stand-by team. Applicable authority is prompted immediately as well.
There are many different drainage aspects to consider with routine road maintenance:
|Bridges||Kerbs & Chutes|
|Culverts||Berms & Asphalt berms|
|Side drains||Subsurface drains ‘Catchwater drains’|
|Mitre drains||Cross falls|
It is the responsibility of Penny Farthing Engineering to calculate the funds required for each contract to clean and maintain drainage structures. Including investigation reports on areas that may cause long-term damage to the road or surrounding environment. With the appropriate investigations and management, a proposal to address identified problem areas are required from the contract managers involved.
Erosion Control is a prominent reality to be addressed by Penny Farthing Engineering. It is important to identify problem areas and take suitable action regarding limiting the erosion or ensuring the eradication there-of with suitable solutions. For instance, the use of stone pitching or gabion baskets to prevent further deuteriation of the road reserve as a precaution or solution to drainage problems.
Cleaning of waterway structures is any and all forms of structures or area identified in connection to clearing any obstructions restricting the flow of water. Workers use long handled spades to clean in-and -outlets of all drainage structures. Alongside the road inlet drains ensure the flow of water away from the road. This also includes the cut of mitre drains with a grader for water to flow into a field.
Culverts is a necessity of underground pipes, reinforced concrete r other material ensures the flow of water from one side to the other – underneath roads, railroads or similar structures that require extra attention for the prevention of water damage to structures applicable. The required size, design and surrounding support structures could be identified effortlessly by Penn Farthing experts. Pipes are laid underneath the road, of which they are cleaned and repaired when broken. In the event of a pipe structure that has deteriorated beyond repair, the old pipes are dug up with a TLB and new pipes are laid. Penny Farthing also install new pre-cast headwalls and other structures to ensure the safety and efficiency of structures built.
Removal of edge build-up is done when the free-flow of water off the pavement is obstructed, thus implicating the safety of travellers. The build-up is removed and disposed of appropriately.
Stone pitching is a rough surface with boulders and cement. The combination of these materials strengthens slopes and/or prevents vegetation and/or further erosion in flood-prone areas.
Drain Grids Covers In the past steel grids has been unsustainable to replace on a regular basis, due to theft. The solution is use of a polymer concrete drain covers, it has no re-sale value and is durable. The catch pit safety is ensured, and costs are cut dramatically. Penny Farthing also makes use of concrete and recycled mesh drain covers, if needed.
In South Africa fencing is crucial to both the travelling public and surrounding communities or farmers. The primary objective for fencing is safety. Penny Farthing offers the following types of fencing:
Metal or concrete palisade fencing
Welded Mesh fencing
The repair and maintenance of fences where necessary as well as the erection of new fences along the boundaries of the road reserve. Stock-proof fencing is used in areas alongside the road where cattle are kept on farms. Stock-proof fencing is the most commonly used type of fencing. Specialized fencing such as Bonox or Razor-blade diamond mesh fencing is erected on dangerous areas to keep pedestrians away from the road, including prevention of fence theft. This type of fencing could be classified as security fencing and done only on request of the client r agreed upon contract. The protection of South African road infrastructures requires unsurpassed fencing solutions for the safety of all parties.
Penny Farthing supplies and maintains guardrails. The road reserve management of a contract requires forecasting the replacement and upkeep of guardrails- especially in areas that are accident prone. The condition if a guardrail system ensures the safety of the travelling public. Penny Farthing’s innovative initiatives for guardrails are the most unique.
The life cycle of a guardrail:
Production of guardrails
Erection of new guardrail
Removal of damaged guardrails
Erection of new Guardrails
Gabion structures are welded wire/mesh mattresses, the gabions are rock filled baskets. Gabion baskets are used for unstable slopes, the prevention of erosion or further erosion (natural disintegrating structures), stabilization and drainage management. The objective for the use of gabions is the preservation and/or prevention of damage to current expensive infrastructure. The goal is supporting the existing environment whilst balancing the need for a safe and efficient road for the travelling public.
The process of incorporating gabions:
Excavation of the area where gabions will be placed
The slip-area, wash-away or identified area to be prepared is levelled
The gabion baskets are packed with rock (specially ordered) upon arrival
The baskets are placed on bidim material.
The ground surrounding the gabion baskets are compacted for the next row to follow at 500mm difference
Instead of excessive cots to resurface the totality of a road, it has been proven that repairs could extend the life expectancy of a Road. The two categories in which Road Pavement Repairs are split in rigid pavements and flexible pavements. Each section has its own subsections of which understanding the difference is crucial.
Rigid Road Pavement Repairs entails:
Loose concrete – The Separation of rigid pavement and/or cracking of concrete
Open/Joint Cracks – The failure of sealant or other circumstances including impaired subgrade support that causes further damage due to exposure.
Weed Growth – Causes growth in joints or cracks of pavement and deteriorates the integrity of the pavement.
Flexible Road Pavement Repairs entails:
Penny Farthing possesses an in-house crack-sealing plant
Surfacing failures – The seal/asphalt of a road deteriorates to the point that requires a layer of slurry or fine asphalt repair. Considering that the under-lying layer has not been affected. The extent of the damage varies from isolated – to extensive repairs. Penny Farthing slurry sealant (slush) is used to repair existing road surface deuteriation. The process serves as the preventative road maintenance to accommodate heavier and constant traffic. Roads with a layer or slurry lasts much longer than less aggressive approaches. Let our experienced engineers assess what would be best for your project with a thorough inspection.
Pothole Repairs – A hole in the rad that extends to the base layer is a hazard to become a major structural failure. The contractor must determine whether rutting and/or deterioration has occurred to address the repair method required. Penny Farthing has a re-active approach to pothole repairs, thus emergency porthole repairs. The process consists of filling the pothole or damaged area in a squared-off area, with the required product and suitable process. Immediate attendance is crucial to prevent further exposure to underlying areas.
1) Pavement failures – Disintegration of the road surface accompanied by a combination of rutting, displacement of the road surface, cracking and damage to the base layer of a road.
2) Deformation of road surfaces – The profile of the road surface is below the original level constructed, due to rutting, settlement failures and/or undulations. The cause of these types of road failures is the volume of heavy traffic, drainage conditions or the nature of base or surfacing material.
The patching should be done before the sub-ground deuteriation process excels. Roads used more frequent than others deuterates when action is not taken. There are different ways to repair the road in question, depending on you’re the contract requirements. Heavy patching is the removal of larger sections of road surface to be re-sealed/surfaced and/or reconstructed. This is an expensive approach depending on the extent of the deuteriation.
1) Cracks of a Road surface could be any of the following:
- Active Cracks
- Stabilization cracks
- Volcano cracks
- Expansive soil cracks
- Longitudal cracks
- Passive Cracks
- Surfacing cracks
- Single cracks
- Crocodile cracks
- Longitudal cracks
2) Pumping failure – Distinctive staining of numerous fine cracks, usually due to ineffective drainage. 1 + 2 =
Crack Sealing Penny Farthing makes use of only the correct and prescribed equipment to fill cleaned out cracks in the road, with the approved sealant and burner to follow. Crack sealing is preventative action taken on disintegrating road surfaces. Cracks get worse over time which can change into potholes and total surface failure. Crack sealing is an economical approach to maintain and slow down the deuteriation process. Rather than expensive resurfacing or reconstruction, crack sealing is the most important preventative action. It is done upon instruction of the engineer where areas are identified to be sealed, using modified bitumen.
Road texture failure – The texture of the road surface could result in bleeding or ravelling due to the method or material used to build the road.
Shoulder failures – The shoulder failures are categorized in surfaced shoulder failures or gravel shoulder failures, of which both is caused by edge breaks or edge build-ups. The loss of gravel or steep shoulders of a road could be the effect of high frequency of heavy vehicles, water/erosion, poor gravel or insufficient regular road maintenance. Penny Farthing build and maintain hard road shoulders. The paved shoulders serve as a lateral support to highways and extends South African roads longevity. Water intrusion is the main cause of deuteriation, and second to it is traffic density. The repair of shoulder failure happens when the shoulder is 50mm less than the surfaced edge of the road. The process consists of ripping, watering and compacting material.
Road Pavement Repairs
The following types of materials and/or methods can be used for pavement repairs:
Emulsion treated base
Hand sprayed Seal
Modified Cape Seal
Preformer Road Pats
Slurry bound Macedam
Mass Earthworks: Before any road is build mass earthworks are required to rid the surrounding area of all ‘dongas’ or vegetation that may cause harm to the potential new road.
Regravelling entails the following process:
The current gravel road is ripped with a grader to achieve the original road gravelled or better.
The material ripped from the road and re-purposed after crushing.
Tippers tip the new material onto the road.
The grader processes the new material when construction the new gravel road.
Penny Farthing then compacts the gravel road with rollers (smooth drums).
On certain gravel roads water is sprayed which and then scraped, known as wet-blading.
The excavator loosen material from the Borrow Pit and loads it into the crusher.
The material (rocks) are crushed into 53mm material that can be used on the road.
The front-end loader then pushes out the usable material which is loaded onto trucks for use.